On April 18, 1906, at 5:12 a.m., San Francisco was struck by one of the most destructive earthquakes in American history, resulting in widespread devastation and leaving a lasting impact on the city and its residents.
Considered one of the worst natural disasters in American history, the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 was estimated to have a magnitude of 7.9, with an epicenter near the San Andreas Fault. The most significant consequence of the earthquake was the destruction of 500 city blocks, including such iconic structures as the City Hall and Palace Hotel. The city’s infrastructure, including water and gas lines, was severely damaged, making it difficult to fight the fires that broke out after the earthquake. The fires burned for three days, reducing large parts of the city to ashes and leaving an estimated 200,000 people homeless out of a population of about 400,000 (1).
The human toll of the earthquake was devastating, with an estimated 3,000 people losing their lives and thousands more injured. The survivors faced immense challenges in the aftermath, including finding shelter, food, and clean water. Families were separated, and the city’s economy came to a standstill as businesses were destroyed, and transportation and communication systems were disrupted.
In response to the disaster, both local and federal efforts were mobilized to help the affected population. The U.S. Army, along with other volunteer organizations, provided aid and support in the form of food, water, and medical assistance. Rebuilding efforts began almost immediately, with thousands of workers joining hands to clear debris and reconstruct the city. An article published in the New York Times two days after the earthquake urged the nation to send help saying, “every community in the land [should] hear the call, that every city, town, and hamlet shall be made to look upon it as a matter of pride as well as of duty to join in the effort” (2).
Perhaps the most long-lasting effects of the earthquake came in the form of significant changes in the city’s urban planning and building regulations, including stricter seismic standards and the use of earthquake-resistant construction techniques. The experience also led to the development of early warning systems and better disaster preparedness plans to mitigate the impacts of future earthquakes, including the Theory of Elastic Rebound, introduced by Professor H.F. Reid, which remains the basis for our modern understanding of earthquakes (3).
Despite the immense challenges, the city of San Francisco rose from the ashes and rebuilt itself. The reconstruction efforts resulted in new architectural styles and designs, with many iconic landmarks, such as Golden Gate Park and Coit Tower being built after the earthquake.